Supervision of graduate and undergraduate students Silvia Bonizzoni. Modeling dolphin habitat preferences in a semi-enclosed basin in Greece. Population abundance of striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba and common dolphin Delphinus delphis in the Gulf of Corinth, Greece. Photo-identification of striped dolphin Stenella coeruleoalba in the Gulf of Corinth, Greece.
Tweet In andafter a hiatus of seven decades, Makah Indian whalers again hunted gray whales from their ancestral lands around Cape Flattery on the Olympic Peninsula. The Makah, whose whaling tradition dates back thousands of years, are the only tribe in the United States with a treaty guaranteeing the right to hunt whales.
Makahs had not whaled since the s, when commercial whaling nearly wiped out whale populations, but the tribe announced it would resume whaling after the gray whale was removed from the Endangered Species List in The decision ignited worldwide controversy. Some animal rights activists bitterly denounced the Makah, but other groups, from advocates for indigenous rights to the United States government, supported the tribe's right to hunt.
Following legal battles and physical confrontations with protestors, Makah whalers landed their first whale in more than 70 years on May 17, A hunt was not successful, and court decisions put further authorized hunts on hold although five whalers killed a whale without permission in as the Makah, who continue to assert their treaty right to hunt whales, seek federal approval to continue their tradition.
People of the Cape In their language, the Makah are "people of the cape" Sullivan, For generations, they inhabited a large portion of the Olympic Peninsula, extending from Cape Flattery at the tip of the Peninsula for many miles south along the Pacific coast and east along the Strait of Juan de Fuca.
Archeological research has documented well over years of Makah life and culture at the village of Ozette, about 15 miles south of Cape Flattery.
Traditions passed down to contemporary Makahs, reports of early visitors to Makah territory, and the discoveries at Ozette all confirm that pre-contact Makah had a well-developed technology and economy based largely on resources from the ocean, principally halibut, fur seals, and whales.
These are usually obtained far out to sea, and the Makah were renowned for their seafaring tradition. Paddling large cedar canoes carved from the trunk of a single tree, Makahs regularly hunted and fished 30 or 40 miles, and sometimes more than miles, out to sea.
Early white observers commented on the Makahs' great skill as canoeists and as whale hunters. Hunting the Gray Whale The Makah hunted several varieties of whale, but concentrated on the gray whale.
These baleen whales, which feed by passing water and mud through large baleen plates in their mouths to strain out food, average 35 to 45 feet in length, and 20 to 35 tons in weight. Pacific gray whales make the longest migration of any mammal.
After feeding off the coast of Alaska during the summer, the whales travel up to 5, miles from the Bering Sea to the coastal lagoons of Baja California, where the females give birth.
In the spring, they return to Alaska. These twice-yearly migrations historically brought thousands of gray whales past the Makah hunting grounds off Cape Flattery every spring and fall. Since even a single whale supplied many needs, and because a whale hunt required substantial resources, whalers occupied positions of high prestige in Makah society.
Only certain families were eligible to lead hunts, and whaling crews were led by the heads of those families. All whalers underwent rigorous spiritual training, including prayer and ritual cleansing and purification, as well as practice in techniques of the hunt.
Makah whaling canoes carried eight men -- a harpooner in front, one to steer in the rear, and six paddlers. The harpoon consisted of a copper or iron head, with horn barbs, tied to a rope of whale sinew and fastened to a wooden staff.
When the whale was harpooned, numerous buoys made of inflated sealskins and tied to the rope were thrown in the water to slow the wounded whale and prevent it from diving. More harpoons and buoys were attached until the whale tired and could be killed with lances. The whale was then towed to shore where it was carved and distributed among the crew and other tribe members according to custom.
Virtually every part of the whale was used. The oil, blubber, and flesh were eaten, sinews were used for ropes, cords and bowstrings, and the stomach and intestines were dried and inflated to hold oil. Even the bones were occasionally used in house construction.
The Makah frequently produced a surplus of whale oil and blubber, which they traded to other tribes, and to white settlers when they arrived.
The Treaty of Neah Bay Like all American Indians, the Makah were devastated by contact with whites and the resulting epidemics, which killed more than two thirds of the Makah population.
As their population declined, white settlement increased and the Makah, like other tribes, were pressured to sign treaties with the U. However, while they agreed to give up many thousands of acres -- all their territory except a small reservation centered around Neah Bay and Cape Flattery -- the Makah insisted on retaining the rights to whale and fish that were central to their culture.
As a result, the Treaty of Neah Bay, signed inspecifically guarantees that "The right of taking fish and of whaling or sealing at usual and accustomed grounds and stations is further secured to said [Makah] Indians in common with all citizens of the United States" Treaty of Neah Bay.
Makahs continued to hunt whales until the s, when commercial whaling decimated the gray whale population.
Inthe same year the Makah signed their treaty, Charles Scammon, a whaler from New England, discovered the gray whales' birthing lagoons in Baja California. White commercial whalers crowded the lagoons, and within a short time the gray whale was nearly extinct, its population dropping from an estimated 30, to only a few thousand.
Bywith worldwide sentiment against whaling rising, the U. The moratorium allowed hunts by some indigenous groups to continue.Ambergris (/ ˈ æ m b ər ɡ r iː s / or / ˈ æ m b ər ɡ r ɪ s /, Latin: ambra grisea, Old French: ambre gris), ambergrease, or grey amber, is a solid, waxy, flammable substance of a dull grey or blackish colour produced in the digestive system of sperm whales.
Freshly produced ambergris has a marine, fecal odor.
However, it acquires a sweet, earthy scent as it ages, commonly likened to. The convention governing the International Whaling Commission (IWC) states similarly that its “regulations with respect to the conservation and utilization of whale resources shall be based on scientific findings”.
But the practice differs greatly from the principle. When commercial whaling started in the average numbers of whales killed per year were around 12, Then 30 years later the number jumped to 40, This was decimating to the whale populations, some near the brink of extinction.
Then in the IWC (International Whaling Commission) was formed. In , the International Whaling Commission (WIC) enacted a moratorium on all commercial whaling. B. B. Since the moratorium was approved, still over 25, whales have been inhumanely slaughtered by Iceland, Norway, and mainly Japan. The International Whaling Commission Essay - Captain Paul Watson once stated in his guide to environmental conservation, "Environmental activists may be a nuisance and a pain in the ass to the established authorities of the present.
Whaling: Inuit and Whale Essay. Abstract Whaling in Alaska has gone on for thousands of years. It is a tradition and way of life for the native people of Alaska. The Inupiat Eskimos of Alaska hunt whale because is one of their main resources for food. The way the .