Language helps express our feelings, desires, and queries to the world around us. Words, gestures and tone are utilized in union to portray a broad spectrum of emotion. The unique and diverse methods human beings can use to communicate through written and spoken language is a large part of what allows to harness our innate ability to form lasting bonds with one another; separating mankind from the rest of the animal kingdom. The importance of communication is often overlooked.
This can and should be regarded as a mark of the enduring value of these models in highlighting key elements of that process for students who are taking the process apart for the first time. It remains, however, that the field of communication has evolved considerably since the 's, and it may be appropriate to update our models to account for that evolution.
This paper presents the classic communication models that are taught in introducing students to interpersonal communication and mass communication, including Shannon's information theory model the active modela cybernetic model that includes feedback the interactive model, an intermediary model sometimes referred to as a gatekeeper model of the two-step flowand the transactive model.
It then introduces a new ecological model of communication that, it is hoped, more closely maps to the the range of materials we teach and research in the field of communication today. This model attempts to capture the fundamental interaction of language, medium, and message that enables communication, the socially constructed aspects of each element, and the relationship of creators and consumers of messages both to these elements and each other.
Introduction While the field of communication has changed considerably over the last thirty years, the models used in the introductory chapters of communication textbooks see Adler, ; Adler, Rosenfeld, and Towne, ; Barker and Barker, ; Becker and Roberts, ; Bittner, ; Burgoon, Hunsaker, and Dawson, ; DeFleur, Kearney, and Plax, ; DeVito, ; Gibson and Hanna, ; Wood, are the same models that were used forty years ago.
This is, in some sense, a testament to their enduring value. Shannon's model of the communication process Figure 1 provides, in its breakdown of the flow of a message from source to destination, an excellent breakdown of the elements of the communication process that can be very helpful to students who are thinking about how they communicate with others.
It remains, however, that these texts generally treat these models as little more than a baseline. They rapidly segue into other subjects that seem more directly relevant to our everyday experience of communication.
In interpersonal communication texts these subjects typically include the social construction of the self, perception of self and other, language, nonverbal communication, listening, conflict management, intercultural communication, relational communication, and various communication contexts, including work and family.
In mass communication texts these subjects typically include media literacy, media and culture, new media, media industries, media audiences, advertising, public relations, media effects, regulation, and media ethics.
There was a time when our communication models provided a useful graphical outline of a semesters material. This is no longer the case. This paper presents the classic models that we use in teaching communication, including Shannon's information theory model the active modela cybernetic model that includes feedback the interactive model, an intermediary model sometimes referred to as a gatekeeper model of the two-step flowand the transactive model.
Few textbooks cover all of these models together. Mass Communication texts typically segue from Shannon's model to a two-step flow or gatekeeper model. Interpersonal texts typically present Shannon's model as the "active" model of the communication process and then elaborate it with interactive cybernetic and transactive models.
Here we will argue the value of update these models to better account for the way we teach these diverse subject matters, and present a unifying model of the communication process that will be described as an ecological model of the communication process.
This model seeks to better represent the structure and key constituents of the communication process as we teach it today. Shannon's Model of the Communication Process Shannon's model of the communication process is, in important ways, the beginning of the modern field.
It provided, for the first time, a general model of the communication process that could be treated as the common ground of such diverse disciplines as journalism, rhetoric, linguistics, and speech and hearing sciences.
Part of its success is due to its structuralist reduction of communication to a set of basic constituents that not only explain how communication happens, but why communication sometimes fails.
Good timing played a role as well. The world was barely thirty years into the age of mass radio, had arguably fought a world war in its wake, and an even more powerful, television, was about to assert itself.
It was time to create the field of communication as a unified discipline, and Shannon's model was as good an excuse as any. The model's enduring value is readily evident in introductory textbooks.
It remains one of the first things most students learn about communication when they take an introductory communication class. Indeed, it is one of only a handful of theoretical statements about the communication process that can be found in introductory textbooks in both mass communication and interpersonal communication.
Shannon's Model of the communication process. Shannon's model, as shown in Figure 1, breaks the process of communication down into eight discrete components: Presumably a person who creates a message.Telephone is the most important form of communication for exchange of ideas, information and solving various issues promptly and urgently.
This mode of communication is effective when parties are exchanging their ideas with same language and they can understand.
Communication skills are important to everyone - they are how we give and receive information and convey our ideas and opinions with those around us. • verbal (sounds, language, and tone of voice).
The NCA National Office will be closed for the holiday on November 22 and 23, Happy Thanksgiving! The speech-language pathologist will talk to you about your child’s communication and general development.
He or she will also use special spoken tests to evaluate your child. A hearing test is often included in the evaluation because a hearing problem can affect speech and language development. What is Communication? - Definition & Importance. Body language is a form of nonverbal communication that can be used to send a message.
You can often tell if your boss is pleased or upset.
Nonverbal communication describes the processes of conveying a type of information in the form of non-linguistic representations. Examples of nonverbal communication include haptic communication, chronemic communication, gestures, body language, facial expressions, eye contact, and how one attheheels.combal communication also relates .