Much can be known about the coming forth of the English text of the Book of Mormon through a careful study of statements made by Joseph Smith, his scribes, and others closely associated with the translation of the Book of Mormon. The resulting English transcription, known as the Book of Lehi and referred to by Joseph Smith as written on pages, was subsequently lost or stolen. As a result, Joseph Smith was rebuked by the Lord and lost the ability to translate for a short time.
Biblical criticism The modern era of critical scholarship on the works opened with K. Bretschneider's work on the topic of Johannine authorship. Bretschneider cited an apologetic character in John, indicating a later date of composition. Scholars such as Wellhausen, Wendt, and Spitta have argued that the fourth gospel is a Grundschrift or a, ".
Baur — proposed that John was solely a work of synthesis of thesis-antithesis according to the Hegelian model—synthesis between the thesis of Judeo-Christianity represented by Peter and the antithesis of Gentile Christianity represented by Paul.
He also cited in the epistles a synthesis with the opposing dualist forces of Gnosticism.
Context: The Gospel of John focuses on the risen life of Christ, so it is read mainly during the Lent and Easter season and during the Advent and Christmas season. The Gospel of John was written to prove that Jesus Christ is the Son of God. The Gospel According to Jesus, John F. MacArthur, Jr. Grand Rapids: Zondervan, indexed, pages, Forewords by James Montgomery Boice and J. I. Packer. THE GOSPEL PLAN OF SALVATION. CHAPTER I PREDESTINATION. Are you "aliens from the commonwealth of Israel, and strangers from the covenants of promise, having no hope.
As such, he assigned a date of to the Gospel. Early criticism[ edit ] The first certain witness to Johannine theology among the Fathers of the Church is in Ignatius of Antiochwhose Letter to the Philippians is founded on John 3: This would indicate that the Gospel was known in Antioch before Ignatius' death probably Polycarp of Smyrna c.
This text is consequently rather obscure. Eusebius says that two different Johns must be distinguished, John the Apostle, and John the Presbyter, with the Gospel assigned to the Apostle and the Book of Revelation to the presbyter. According to many scholars, he states unequivocally that the apostle is the author of the Gospel.
Other scholars note, however, that Irenaeus consistently refers to the author of the gospel, as well as of Revelation, as "the disciple of the Lord," whereas he refers to the others as "apostles. Koester rejects the reference of Ignatius of Antioch as referring to the Gospel and cites Irenaeus as the first to use it.
However, more recent scholarship has shown the fragment may date from as late as the third or fourth century, rather than the second century, as was previously supposed. The adversaries of Montanism were responsible. Irenaeus says that these persons tried to suppress the teaching about the Holy Spirit in order to put down Montanism, and as a result denied the authorship of the Gospel and its authority.
Later Epiphanius called this group, who were followers of the priest Caius, the Alogi in a wordplay between "without the Word" and "without reason". Modern criticism[ edit ] Modern criticism can be broken down into three main sections: It was the gnostics, the Marcionites, and the Montanists who first used it and introduced it to the Christian community.
Sanderswho wrote The Fourth Gospel in the Early Churchexamined "the alleged parallels with John in IgnatiusPolycarpBarnabasand the Epistle to Diognetusand concluded that there were no certain traces of the Fourth Gospel's influence among any of the Apostolic Fathers. Traditionally he is identified as John the Apostle, since otherwise, one of the most important apostles in the other Gospels would be entirely missing in the fourth gospel.
However, critical scholars have suggested some other possibilities. Parker suggested that this disciple might be John Mark ; nonetheless, the Acts of the Apostles indicate that John Mark was very young and a late-comer as a disciple. Colson suggested that "John" was a priest in Jerusalem, explaining the alleged priestly mentality in the fourth gospel.
Schnackenburg suggested that "John" was an otherwise unknown resident of Jerusalem who was in Jesus' circle of friends.
Finally, a few authors, such as Loisy and Bultmann and Hans-Martin Schenkesee "the Beloved Disciple" as a purely symbolic creation, an idealized pseudonym for the group of authors.
Gnosticism scholar Elaine Pagels goes further and claims that the author himself was a Gnostic, citing similarities with the Gospel of Thomas and the Gospel of Philip. First of all, the Gospel of John is a highly intellectual account of Jesus' life, and is familiar with Rabbinic traditions of biblical interpretation.
The Synoptic Gospels, however, are united in identifying John as a fisherman. Objections are also raised because the "disciple whom Jesus loved" is not mentioned before the Last Supper.
Brownamong others, posit a community of writers rather than a single individual that gave final form to the work. Among many Christian scholars the view has evolved that there were multiple stages of development involving the disciples as well as the apostle; R.
Brown distinguishes four stages of development: At the very least, it seems clear that in chapter 21 someone else speaks in the first person plural "we"ostensibly as the voice of a community that believes the testimony of this other person called the "beloved disciple" to be true.
The writing of the Gospel has been dated to c.Christian Scriptures Conflicts between the Gospel of John and the remaining three (Synoptic) gospels. Sponsored link. Introduction. Almost all of the biblical information about the earthly ministry of Jesus is contained in the four gospels Mark, Matthew, Luke and John.
3 And if I go and prepare a place for you, I will come again, and receive you unto myself; that where I am, there ye may be also. 4 And whither I go ye know, and the way ye know.
5 Thomas saith unto him, Lord, we know not whither thou goest; and how can we know the way? 6 Jesus saith unto him, I am. An Introduction to the Gospel of John The Gospel of John is believed to be the last of the four Gospels in the New Testament to be written.
While the Gospels of Matthew, Mark, and Luke are similar in their common view, the book of John is distinct.
In contrast, none of the parables are recorded in John, and only seven of the miracles are featured. The authorship of the Johannine works—the Gospel of John, Epistles of John, and the Book of Revelation—has been debated by scholars since at least the 2nd century AD. The main debate centers on who authored the writings, and which of the writings, if any, can be ascribed to a common author.
There may have been a single author for the gospel and the three epistles. Jan 12, · One of the most common images in Western and Eastern religions alike is of God as a parent and of human beings as God’s children.
Billions pray to God as their parent, invoke the brotherhood and sisterhood of all people to promote peace, and reach out to the weary and troubled out of deep conviction that each of God’s children has great worth. Essay / Theology The Structure of Matthew's Gospel.
by Fred Sanders on February 11, The Gospel According to Matthew is intricately structured. A simple outline can capture the basic shape of the book well enough to assist a good reading, but a little more attention shows that this book has several layers of order, all helpful.