Invasions of Privacy by Journalists 1.
Folk news[ edit ] Evidence suggests that cultures around the world have found a place for people to share stories about interesting new information. Among Zulus, Mongolians, Polynesians, and American Southerners, anthropologists have documented the practice of questioning travelers for news as a matter of priority.
Starting in England, coffeehouses served as important sites for the spread of news, even after telecommunications became widely available.
Travelers on pilgrimages to Mecca traditionally stay at caravanseraisroadside inns, along the way, and these places have naturally served as hubs for gaining news of the world. These were carved in metal or stone and posted in public places.
The Zulu Kingdom used runners to quickly disseminate news. In West Africa, news can be spread by griots. In most cases, the official spreaders of news have been closely aligned with holders of political power.
In thirteenth-century Florence, criers known as banditori arrived in the market regularly, to announce political news, to convoke public meetings, and to call the populace to arms.
In and —, laws were established governing their appointment, conduct, and salary. These laws stipulated how many times a banditoro was to repeat a proclamation forty and where in the city they were to read them. These criers were sent to read official announcements in marketplaces, highways, and other well-traveled places, sometimes issuing commands and penalties for disobedience.
Thus, political, religious, and commercial interests have historically controlled, expanded, and monitored communications channels by which news could spread. Postal services have long been closely entwined with the maintenance of political power in a large area.
These can have ranged from smoke and fire signals to advanced systems using semaphore codes and telescopes. Chinawhere reports gathered by officials were eventually compiled as the Spring and Autumn Annals. The annals, whose compilation is attributed to Confuciuswere available to a sizeable reading public and dealt with common news themes—though they straddle the line between news and history.
Between andthe Kaiyuan Za Bao "Bulletin of the Court" of the Chinese Tang Dynasty published government news; it was handwritten on silk and read by government officials.
The system depended on hikyaku, runners, and regularly spaced relay stations. By this method, news could travel between Kyoto and Kamakura in 5—7 days. Special horse-mounted messengers could move information at the speed of kilometers per day. This system was initially used only by the government, taking private communications only at exorbitant prices.
Private services emerged and in established their own nakama guild. They became even faster, and created an effective optical telegraphy system using flags by day and lanterns and mirrors by night.
At 33 kilometres per day, a runner would take two months to bring a message across the Hanseatic League from Bruges to Riga. The driving force of this new development was the commercial advantage provided by up-to-date news. Sponsorship flavored the contents of each series, which were circulated under many different names.
Subscribers included clerics, diplomatic staff, and noble families. By the last quarter of the seventeenth century avvisi long passages from were finding their way into published monthlies such as the Mercure de France and, in northern Italy, Pallade veneta.
For the Holy Roman EmpireEmperor Maximillian I in authorized two brothers from the Italian Tasso family, Francesco and Janettto, to create a network of courier stations linked by riders.
They began with a communications line between Innsbruck and Mechelen and grew from there. These riders could travel kilometers in a day. Indeed, personal correspondence sometimes acted only as a convenient channel through which news could flow across a larger network.
History of newspapers and magazines The spread of paper and the printing press from China to Europe preceded a major advance in the transmission of news.
Private newsletters containing important intelligence therefore remained in use by people who needed to know. The new format, which mashed together numerous unrelated and perhaps dubious reports from far-flung locations, created a radically new and jarring experience for its readers.
ByEngland had created a licensing system for the press and banned "seditious opinions".FlightGlobal is the global aviation community’s primary source of news, data, insight, knowledge and expertise. We provide news, data, analytics and advisory services to connect the aviation.
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