Family and Household What does the study of families and households tell us about our global past? In this unit examining West Asia, Europe, and China, families and households become the focus of historians, providing a window into the private experiences in world societies, and how they sometimes become a model for ordering the outside world. Land and Labor Relationships What factors shape the ways in which the basic resources are exploited by a society? From Southeast Asia to Russia, Africa, and the Americas, the ratios between land availability and the usable labor force were the primary basis of pre-industrial economies, but politics, environment, and culture played a part as well.
Samudera Pasai Sultanate map : Funds, both public and private, are spent on the construction of new mosques, rather than the exploration of old ones. Ricklefs identifies two overlapping processes by which the Islamisation of Indonesia occurred: Islam is thought to have been present in Southeast Asia from early in the Islamic era.
It would have been through this contact that Arabic emissaries between and the midth century are thought to have become involved in the Sumatran trading state of Srivijaya. The earliest accounts of the Indonesian archipelago date from the Abbasid Caliphate.
According to those early accounts, the Indonesian archipelago was famous among early Muslim sailors, mainly due to its abundance of precious spice trade commodities such as nutmegclovesgalangal and many other spices.
The earliest legibly inscribed tombstone is dated AH ADalthough as it belongs to a non-Indonesian Muslim, there is doubt as to whether it was transported to Java at a later time.
The first evidence of Indonesian Muslims comes from northern Sumatra; Marco Poloon his way home from China inreported at least one Muslim town;  and the first evidence of a Muslim dynasty is the gravestone, dated AH ADof Sultan Malik al Salehthe first Muslim ruler of Samudera Pasai Sultanatewith further gravestones indicating continued Islamic rule.
In his travel log, Ibn Battuta wrote that the ruler of Samudera Pasai was a Muslim who performs his religious duties with utmost zeal.
These Muslims allegedly followed the Hanafi school in the Chinese language. These carried hundreds of sailors on four tiers of decks. As a favorite of the Yongle Emperor, whose usurpation he assisted, he rose to the top of the imperial hierarchy and served as commander of the southern capital Nanjing the capital was later moved to Beijing by the Yongle Emperor.
A trilingual stele left by the navigator was discovered on the island of Sri Lanka shortly thereafter. By region[ edit ] It was initially believed that Islam penetrated Indonesian society in a largely peaceful way, and from the 14th century to the end of the 19th century the archipelago saw almost no organised Muslim missionary activity.
The Trengganu stone has a predominance of Sanskrit over Arabic words, suggesting the representation of the introduction of Islamic law. According to the Ying-yai Sheng-lan: Inhe visited the Malacca Sultanateits ruler Iskandar Shah was Muslim and also his people, and they were very strict believers".
Aceh was founded in the early 16th century and would later become the most powerful North Sumatran state and one of the most powerful in the whole Malay archipelago.
InAli Mughayat Syah started military campaigns to dominate the northern part of Sumatra. He conquered Daya, and submitted the people to Islam. At this time, according to Pires, most Sumatran kings were Muslim; from Aceh and south along the east coast to Palembang the rulers were Muslim, while south of Palembang and around the southern tip of Sumatra and up the west coast, most were not.
In other Sumatran kingdoms, such as Pasai and Minangkabau the rulers were Muslim although at that stage their subjects and peoples of neighbouring areas were not, however, it was reported that the religion was continually gaining new adherents.
After the arrival of the Portuguese colonials and the tensions that followed regarding control of the spice tradethe Acehnese Sultan Alauddin al-Kahar —71 sent an embassy to the Ottoman Sultan Suleiman the Magnificent inrequesting Ottoman support against the Portuguese Empire.
From Malacca and elsewhere, gravestones survive showing not only its spread in the Malay archipelago but as the religion of a number of cultures and their rulers in the late 15th century. Central and eastern Java[ edit ] Grand Mosque of Demakthe first Muslim state in Java Inscriptions in Old Javanese rather than Arabic on a significant series of gravestones dating back to in East Java, indicate that these are almost certainly Javaneserather than foreign Muslims.
Due to their elaborate decorations and proximity to the site of the former Hindu-Buddhist Majapahit capital, Damais concludes that these are the graves of very distinguished Javanese, perhaps even royalty. Ricklefs argues that these east Javan gravestones, sited and dated at the non-coastal Majapahitcast doubt on the long-held view that Islam in Java originated on the coast and represented political and religious opposition to the kingdom.
As a kingdom with far-reaching political and trading contacts, Majapahit would have almost certainly been in contact with Muslim traders, however there is conjecture over the likelihood of its sophisticated courtiers being attracted to a religion of merchants.
Rather, mystical Sufi Muslim teachers, possibly claiming supernatural powers keramatare thought to be a more probable agent of religious conversion of Javanese court elites, who had long been familiar with aspects of Hindu and Buddhist mysticism.
The coastal areas such as Surabaya were, however, Islamised and were often at war with the interior, except for Tuban, which remained loyal to the Hindu-Buddhist king. Some of the coastal Muslim lords were converted Javanese, or Muslim Chinese, Indians, Arabs, and Malays who had settled and established their trading state on the coast.
This war between the Muslim-coast and Hindu-Buddhist interior also continued long after the fall of the Majapahit by the Demak Sultanateand the animosity also continues long after both regions had adopted Islam.
Muslims from the west, Chinese some Muslim and the heathen Javanese. Malik Ibrahim was, however, according to Javanese tradition one of the first nine apostles of Islam in Java the Wali Sanga although no documentary evidence exists for this tradition.
In the late 15th century, the powerful Majapahit empire in Java was at its decline.
Islam in Southeast Asia is heterogeneous and is manifested in many different ways. Some places in Southeast Asia, Islam is adapted to coexist with already existent local traditions.  Mysticism is a defining characteristic of Islam in Southeast Asia, with a large following of Sufism. Spread of Islam, The WTH THE DEATH of Muhammad, the Muslim community found itself without a leader. While as the ‘seal of the prophets’ he could have no successor, as a political guide Muhammad was succeeded by the so-called al Khulafa' al Rashidun, the four ‘rightly-guided caliphs’ who were chosen from his most loyal companions. The rapidity of the spread of Islam, noticeably through extensive provinces which had been long Christian, is a crucial fact of history.. The sublime rhetoric of the Quran, that inimitable symphony, the very sounds of which move men to tears and ecstasy".
After had been defeated in several battles, the last Hindu kingdom in Java fell under the rising power of Islamised Kingdom of Demak in For example, until the early Demak era, society is divided into two major groups, such as Majapahit era.
First, the Group of Gusti, namely people who live in the palace. Secondly, the Group of Kawula, people who live outside the palace.
Gusti means master, Kawula means slaves or servants, who only have the right to lease, not the right of ownership, because the right of ownership is only belongs to the people with the social status of Gusti.
In the era of Majapahitall property is owned by the palace state, or nation, or the kingdom. This also means, if he had been a Kawula, his social status will rise, and he will become a Gusti, and he also has the right of ownership as he was given the simah land fief.The spread of Islam in eastern islands of Indonesia is recorded in when three Islamic pious men collectively known as Dato' Tallu came from Makasar, namely Dato'ri Bandang (Abdul Makmur or Khatib Tunggal), Dato'ri Pattimang (Sulaiman Ali or Khatib Sulung) and Dato'ri Tiro (Abdul Jawad or Khatib Bungsu.
the main dynamics of the rapid spread of islam During the tenth century, Islam was the predominant religion of an area covering more than half of the then-known world.
Its adherents inhabited three continents: from the Pyrenees and Siberia up to China and New Guinea, and from Morocco to the southern tip of Africa.
The spread of Islam is not a new phenomenon.
Ever since Muhammad's troops fanned out from Mecca in the 7th century, Islam has been spreading globally. But Islam's spread in Western democracies is a recent trend and one that is accelerating. By Sword or By Conversion? By: Sayyid Muhammad Rizvi (This book is an expanded version of the talk given on the “Islam in Focus” TV program of May ).
Spread of Islam, The WTH THE DEATH of Muhammad, the Muslim community found itself without a leader. The Spread Of Islam The Islamic state expanded very rapidly after the death of Muhammad through remarkable successes both at converting unbelievers to Islam and by military conquests of the Islamic community's opponents.
Expansion of the.