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Several Problems in the Case of Japan HIRAI Naofusa It is known that modernization, as far as technology and science are concerned, emerged after the Industrial Revolution, which was triggered by the invention of spinning machinery in England during the late eighteen century.
In Japan as well as in other Asian countries modernization has often been confused with Westernization. This is because modernization, when it occurred in these countries, quite often meant accepting Western culture and resulted in great changes of everyday life.
Hideo Separation and reunion in modern china once pointed out the difference between modernization and Westernization in the following way.
Westernization would mean that a certain indigenous cultural element of the traditional East is replaced by the penetrating Western element, and the functional role of the former is taken over by the latter. Modernization, on the other hand, basically means to remold a cultural system into a new mode.
In the case of Japan, the adoption of Western clothes, food, hair styles and houses can be regarded as a part of Westernization. Although these things gave Japanese people some convenience and a smell of new culture, the functions they performed were almost the same as those which indigenous substitutes had fulfilled in earlier times.
On the other hand, the introduction of telephones, TV, airplanes, mass communication, bureaucratic institutions, computer control systems and so forth can be considered to be a part of modernization because they contain the potential for enlarging the spheres of life and broadening one's outlook, and furthermore transform ways of thinking, patterns of behavior and world views.
It definitely means remolding a cultural system into a new form. This remolding will not always produce good effects such as a dignified style of life and social stability, although it is necessary and indispensable for improving the living standards of each citizen.
This is because introducing western elements into non-Western countries may sometimes cause serious friction and tension with the traditional cultures. Inscholars from Japan, U. At the conference one of the topics was how to define modernization as such.
Hall later pointed out seven characteristics as follows: A comparatively high concentration of population in cities and the increasingly urban-centeredness of the total society. A relatively high degree of use of inanimate energy, the widespread circulation of commodities, and the growth of service facilities.
Extensive spatial interaction of members of a society and the widespread participation of such members in economic and political affairs. Widespread literacy accompanied by the spread of secular, and increasingly scientific, orientation of the individual to his environment.
An extensive and penetrative network of mass communication. The existence of large-scale social institutions such as government, business, industry and the increasingly bureaucratic organization of such institutions.
Increased unification of large bodies of population under one control nations and the growing interaction of such units international relations. This ideational dimension is deeply concerned with religious problems such as the meaning of life and the will to work as well as with secular values.
Traditional culture, if understood in a broad sense, indicates all human activities such as religion, philosophy, moral standards, laws, politics, economic, society, history, literature and art, such as have been preserved, learned and transmitted in a given community or group over a long period of time.
In this paper I shall confine my attention mainly to the religious traditions of Japan. Focusing upon this point, I shall mention several factors which have supported modernization in Japan, and also try to point out some of the adverse effects brought about by that same modernization.
Peripherality is probably one of the traits which have contributed to Japan's modernization. Japan is geographically located on the periphery of culturally developed countries such as China, and has become accustomed to accepting foreign developed cultures.
Japanese people have maintained a great interest and curiosity in imported things, including religion and science. This is why Japanese people never felt any strong resistance against the introduction of Western culture, both spiritual and material.
Emphasis on this-worldliness rather than other-worldliness also worked in favor of modernization in Japan.
This emphasis actually means the value-worldly values rather than to other-worldly ones, and their ideals have to be realized in this world. It is obvious that this value-orientation is dominant in the Shinto tradition, but a more thorough examination is necessary to determine its origins.
In Japanese mythology there is scarcely an account explaining the other world, although some people say that there is one exception. That is the tale of izanagi-no-mikoto 's visit to Yomi Hades. This tale, however, concludes with promises of development and prosperity in this world.
Shinto does not have any eschatology as such. Shinto's view of history is a "cyclical type," if we may use Prof. In the Shinto worldview, history permanently repeats itself in a cyclical manner similar to the agricultural calendar. In Shinto mythology everything is thought to be immature and imperfect at the beginning, and then to become gradually better and better as long as men's endeavors and the protection of the gods continue.Separation and Reunion in Modern China Charles Sta⁄ord.
published by the press syndicate of the university of cambridge The Pitt Building, TrumpingtonStreet, Cambridge, United Kingdom cambridge university press The EdinburghBuilding, Cambridge CB2 2RU,UK attheheels.com In this original and readable book, Charles Stafford describes the Chinese fascination with separation and reunion.
Drawing on his field studies in Taiwan and mainland China, he gives a vivid account of raucous festivals of reunion, elaborate rituals for the sending-off of gods (and daughters), poetic moments of leave-takings between friends, and bitter political rhetoric about Chinese Author: Charles Stafford.
Attachment and Separation: What Everyone Should Know. by Dr. Peter Cook. Many human troubles would be lessened if the emotional needs of infants and young children were better understood in .
The Louise Child Care Center's Infant/Toddler Research Program: Longitudinal Behavioral Observation of Infants' Responses to Separation and Reunion in the Day Care Environment.
The Infant/Toddler Program of the Louise Child Care Center began providing full time day care to young children of working parents in the fall of In this distinctive book, Charles Stafford describes the Chinese fascination with separation and reunion.
Drawing on his field studies in Taiwan and mainland China, he gives a vivid account of festivals of reunion, rituals for the sending-off of gods, silent leave-takings, poetic . In modern industrial society, age at marriage is much higher than in agricultural societies in the past.
c. In China and India, most people live in large, multigenerational extended families.