Did a historical Jesus exist? The power of faith has so forcefully driven the minds of most believers, and even apologetic scholars, that the question of reliable evidence gets obscured by tradition, religious subterfuge, and outrageous claims. The following gives a brief outlook about the claims of a historical Jesus and why the evidence the Christians present us cannot serve as justification for reliable evidence for a historical Jesus. All claims about Jesus derive from writings of other people.
A system of social and economic organization that would substitute state monopoly for private ownership of the sources of production and means of distribution, and would concentrate under the control of the secular governing authority the chief activities of human life.
The term is often used vaguely to indicate any increase of collective control over individual action, or even any revolt of the dispossessed against the rule of the possessing classes.
But these are undue extensions of the term, leading to much confusion of thought. State control and even state ownership are not necessarily Socialism: Nor is mere revolt against economic inequality Socialism: Nor is it merely a proposal to make such economic changes in the social structure as would banish poverty.
It is also a philosophy of social life and action, regarding all human activities from a definite economic standpoint.
Moreover modern Socialism is not a mere arbitrary exercise at state-building, but a deliberate attempt to relieve, on explicit principles, the existing social conditions, which are regarded as intolerable.
The great inequalities of human life and opportunity, produced by the excessive concentration of wealth in the hands of a comparatively small section of the community, have been the cause and still are the stimulus of what is called the Socialistic movement.
But, in Examine religious beliefs about death and to understand fully what Socialism is and what it implies, it is necessary first to glance at the history of the movement, then to examine its philosophical and religious tendencies, and finally to consider how far these may be, and actually have proved to be, incompatible with Christian thought and life.
The first requirement is to understand the origin and growth of the movement. It has been customary among writers of the Socialist movement to begin with references to Utopian theories of the classical and Renaissance periods, to Plato's "Republic", Plutarch's "Life of Lycurgus", More's "Utopia", Campanella's "City of the Sun", Hall's "Mundus alter et idem", and the like.
Thence the line of thought is traced through the French writers of the eighteenth century, Meslier, Monterquieu, d'Argenson, Morelly, Rousseau, Mably, till, with Linguet and Necker, the eve of the Revolution is reached.
In a sense, the modern movement has its roots in the ideas of these creators of ideal commonwealths. Yet there is a gulf fixed between the modern Socialists and the older Utopists.
In the manifesto issued by him and his fellow-conspirators, "Les Egaux", is to be found a clear vision of the collective organization of societysuch as would be largely accepted by most modern Socialists.
Babeuf was guillotined by the Directory, and his party suppressed. But a small group of English writers in the early years of the nineteenth century had really more to do with the development of Socialist thought than had either Owen's attempts to found ideal communities, at New Lanark and elsewhere, or the contemporary theories and practice of Saint-Simon and Fourier in France.
These English writers, the earliest of whom, Dr. Charles Hall, first put forward that idea of a dominant industrial and social "system", which is the pervading conception of modern Socialism, worked out the various basic principles of Socialism, which Marx afterwards appropriated and combined.
Robert Thompson, Ogilvie, Hodgkin, Gray, above all William Carpenter, elaborated the theories of "surplus value", of "production for profit", of "class-war", of the ever-increasing exploitation of the poor by the rich, which are the stuff of Marx's "Das Kapital", that "old clothes-shop of ideas culled from BerlinParis, and London".
For indeed, this famous work is really nothing more than a dexterous combination of Hegelian Evolutionism, of French Revolutionismand of the economic theories elaborated by Ricardo, on the one hand, and this group of English theorists on the other.
Yet the services of Karl Marx and of his friend and brother-Hebrew, Friedrich Engels, to the cause of Socialism must not be underrated. These two writers came upon the scene just when the Socialist movement was at its lowest ebb. In England the work of Robert Owen had been overlaid by the Chartist movement and its apparent failure, while the writings of the economists mentioned above had had but little immediate influence.
In France the Saint-Simonians and the Fourierists had disgusted everyone by the moral collapse of their systems. In Germany Lassalle had so far devoted his brilliant energies merely to Republicanism and philosophy. But in Marx and Engels published the "Communist Manifesto", and, mere rhetoric as it was, this document was the beginning of modern "scientific Socialism".
The influence of Proudhon and of the Revolutionary spirit of the times pervades the whole manifesto: But already there appear the ideas of "the materialistic conception of history", of "the bourgeoisie" and "the proletariat", and of "class-war". Afterin his exile in LondonMarx studied, and wrote, and organized with two results: It is not easy to judge which has had the more lasting effect upon the Socialist movement.
For the first time since the disruption of Christendom an organization took shape which had for its object the union of the major portion of all nations upon a common basis. It was not so widely supported as both its upholders believed and the frightened moneyed interests imagined.
|Our Hearts Were Burning Within Us||During such a time often people think about the mysterious aspects of life, and most especially death.|
|Maimonides - Wikipedia||Religious Beliefs and Practices Chapter 1:|
|How different religions view death||They say, "one death is a tragedy, but a million deaths is a statistic"; this is because we can imagine one death but we don't have the computational power to imagine the social breadth of a million deaths. Some things are too small, too restricted, to imagine.|
Nor had this first organization any promise of stability. From the outset the influence of Marx steadily grew, but it was confronted by the opposition of Bakunin and the Anarchist school. By the International was even formally at an end.
But it had done its work: Since that first meeting seven others have been held at intervals of three or four years, at which there has been a steady growth in the number of delegates present, the variety of nationalities represented, and the extent of the Socialistic influence over its deliberations.
Inan International Socialist Bureau was established at Brusselswith the purpose of Solidifying and strengthening the international character of the movement.
Sincean Inter-Parliamentary Socialist Committee has given further support to the work of the bureau. Today the international nature of the Socialistic movement is an axiom both within and without its ranks; an axiom that must not be forgotten in the estimation both of the strength and of the trend of the movement.
To the International, then, modern Socialism owes much of its present power.different religious beliefs and practices surrounding death, that has been used as the basis for this book which has been expanded to encompass an examination of religious views on HIV/AIDS.
In order to describe and explain the most primitive religion known to man, Durkheim observed, we must first define the term "religion" itself: otherwise we risk drawing inferences from beliefs and practices which have nothing "religious" about them, or (and this was the greater danger to Durkheim) of leaving many religious facts to one side without understanding their true.
Islam (/ ˈ ɪ s l ɑː m /) is an Abrahamic monotheistic religious group teaching that there is only one God and that Muhammad is the messenger of God. It is the world's second-largest religion and with over billion followers (or % of the world's population), most commonly known as Muslims.
Muslims make up a majority of the population in 50 countries. Beliefs and practices Faith Concepts of faith. The idea of faith shared by all Christian churches is rooted in the New attheheels.com the New Testament idea of faith is not simple; indeed, it possesses a breadth of meaning that has led to varying understandings, even within a single Christian communion.
The Historical Background. Jehovah Witness doctrine was founded by Charles Taze Russell. He was only 18 years old when he began a Bible study that focused on the second coming of Jesus, as well as the chronology of the Bible.
Question and answer forum examining world religions like Buddhism, Christianity, Islam, Judaism, New Age, The Occult, Secular Humanism, and more.