Collections of Essays 1. Overall View Utilitarianism is a philosophical view or theory about how we should evaluate a wide range of things that involve choices that people face. Among the things that can be evaluated are actions, laws, policies, character traits, and moral codes.
It is possible to be a relativist either about all truths whatsoever or only about truths in certain domains—e. Though some people claim to be relativists about all truths across the board, it is more common today for people to be relativists about ethics and to be absolutists about truths in other areas, like science and mathematics.
Because ethical relativism is the most common variety of relativism, it will be the focus of our discussion in this essay. There are two basic kinds of ethical relativism: The two kinds of relativism are defined as follows: Notice that both views deny that there are any absolute or objective ethical truths.
Each version of ethical relativism, then, is composed of both a negative and a positive element—the negative claim that there are no absolute or objective ethical truths and a positive account of that to which ethical truths are relative.
What is right for you is completely up to you to decide. You are sovereign over the principles that can tell you how to live your life. What your culture says is right for you really is right for you. The culture or society is the highest authority about what is right for individuals living within that society.
Arguments in Favor of Conventional Ethical Relativism In the next two sections we will consider arguments for and against conventional ethical relativism.
We will put off discussing subjective ethical relativism until after we have finished discussing conventional relativism. Cultural Diversity The argument from cultural diversity seeks to support conventional relativism by appealing to empirical facts about the wide variety of cultural practices around the globe.
The argument goes like this: But now we know that each of our conventions and norms reflects only one out of an endless number of possibilities and that other cultures have opted for other ways of doing things. Louis Pojmanp. For instance, Eskimos allow their elderly to die by starvation, whereas we believe that this is morally wrong.
The Spartans of ancient Greece and the Dobu of New Guinea believe that stealing is morally right; but we believe it is wrong. Many cultures, past and present, have practiced or still practice infanticide.
A tribe in East Africa once threw deformed infants to the hippopotamus, but our society condemns such acts.
Sexual practices vary over time and clime. Some cultures permit homosexual behavior, whereas others condemn it. Some cultures, including Moslem societies, practice polygamy, while Christian cultures view it as immoral.
Anthropologist Ruth Benedict describes a tribe in Melanesia that views cooperation and kindness as vices, and anthropologist Colin Turnbull has documented that the Ik in northern Uganda have no sense of duty toward their children or parents. There are societies that make it a duty for children to kill their aging parents sometimes by strangling.
The anthropological study of foreign lands has or ought to have opened our eyes and set us free from any closed-minded adherence to the parochial standards of our own culture. Faced with the tremendous cultural diversity the world offers, it is simply not reasonable to think that one set of cultural practices can be the one and only right set.
Hence, we must conclude that all cultural practices are equally valid.Why is Cheating Wrong.
produce a thesis statement (a complete sentence) and a brief outline for a critical evaluation essay that will be. Then, discuss how you plan to use the terms ethos, pathos, or logos within your critical evaluation essay.
The view that there is no such thing as universal truth in ethics, but that there are only various cultural codes is called. when a person says claims that capital punishment is morally wrong, they are. expressing their feelings but not stating a fact. As presented in the Rachels essay, the traditional view of the AMA is that.
There are so many different reasons that a person might lie. Maybe a lie about something to keep oneself out of trouble, or even a lie to impress other people.
But either way there are always going to be serious consequences or effects of lying. Although utilitarianism has always had many critics, there are many 21 st century thinkers that support it.
violating their rights, etc.
This criticism only stands up if it is always wrong and thus never morally justified to treat people in these ways. including essays defending utilitarianism by R. M. Hare and John Harsanyi, As the.
This essay disproves that "Cheating is always wrong" and "there is an absolute reality". This essay disproves that "Cheating is always wrong" and "there is an absolute reality" Essay by BriGuy, College, Undergraduate, November download word file, 4 pages download word file, 4 pages 22 votes 2 reviews/5(2).