According tNeisser, FBM may simply be a narrative convention. He explained this idea by saying that flashbulb memories are governed by the conventions of a storytelling schema, following a specific structure. In other words, when we recount important events, we do by using conventional storytelling techniques. To investigate the accuracy of flashbulb memory Methods:
Behavior Behavior refers to the movement of some part of an organism that changes some aspect of the environment. Operant conditioning Operant behavior is the so-called "voluntary" behavior that is sensitive to, or controlled by its consequences.
Specifically, operant conditioning refers to the three-term contingency that uses stimulus controlin particular an antecedent contingency called the discriminative stimulus SD that influences the strengthening or weakening of behavior through such consequences as reinforcement or punishment.
Respondent classical conditioning[ edit ] Main article: Classical conditioning Respondent classical conditioning is based on innate stimulus-response relationships called reflexes. In his famous experiments with dogs, Pavlov usually used the salivary reflex, namely salivation unconditioned response following the taste of food unconditioned stimulus.
Pairing a neutral stimulus, for example a bell conditioned stimulus with food caused the bell to elicit salivation conditioned response.
Thus, in classical conditioning, the conditioned stimulus becomes a signal for a biologically significant consequence. Note that in respondent conditioning, unlike operant conditioning, the response does not produce a reinforcer or punisher e.
Environment[ edit ] The environment is the entire constellation of stimuli in which an organism exists. A stimulus is an "energy change that affects an organism through its receptor cells".
Topographically by its physical features. Temporally by when it occurs. Functionally by its effect on behavior. Reinforcement Reinforcement is the key element in operant conditioning  and in most behavior change programs.
If a behavior is followed closely in time by a stimulus and this results in an increase in the future frequency of that behavior, then the stimulus is a positive reinforcer.
If the removal of an event serves as a reinforcer, this is termed negative reinforcement. Punishment psychology Punishment is a process by which a consequence immediately follows a behavior which decreases the future frequency of that behavior. As with reinforcement, a stimulus can be added positive punishment or removed negative punishment.
Broadly, there are three types of punishment: Extinction procedures are often preferred over punishment procedures, as many punishment procedures are deemed unethical and in many states prohibited. Nonetheless, extinction procedures must be implemented with utmost care by professionals, as they are generally associated with extinction bursts.
These novel behaviors are a core component of shaping procedures. Discriminated operant and three-term contingency[ edit ] In addition to a relation being made between behavior and its consequences, operant conditioning also establishes relations between antecedent conditions and behaviors.
In other words, the relation between a behavior B and its context A is because of consequences Cmore specifically, this relationship between AB because of C indicates that the relationship is established by prior consequences that have occurred in similar contexts.
A behavior which occurs more frequently in the presence of an antecedent condition than in its absence is called a discriminated operant.In Freud's psychoanalytic theory of personality, the unconscious mind is a reservoir of feelings, thoughts, urges, and memories that outside of our conscious awareness.
Most of the contents of the unconscious are unacceptable or unpleasant, such as feelings of pain, anxiety, or conflict. According to Freud, the unconscious continues to influence our behavior and experience, even though we are.
- A Comparison of the Main Approaches to Personality Psychology Psychology of personality is a difficult concept to define and quantify, therefore most personality theories, however different they may be in other respects, share the basic assumption, that personality is a particular pattern of behaviour and thinking, that prevails across time.
EDUCATIONAL PSYCHOLOGY INTERACTIVE Readings in Educational Psychology. Developed by: W. Huitt Last updated: November Maria Bielikova, Eelco Herder, Federica Cena and Michel Desmarais Adjunct Publication of the 25th Conference UMAP '17 Bratislava, Slovakia Adjunct Publication of the 25th Conference on User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization - UMAP '17 User Modeling, Adaptation and Personalization ACM Press New York, New York, USA, ().
Analysis of Erik, Phantom of the Opera Using Two Contrasting Personality Theories The tremendously popular and well-known Andrew Lloyd Webber’s musical production of The Phantom of the Opera was based on the French novel Le Fantôme de l'Opéra . Sep 18, · Using the framework method for the analysis of qualitative data in multi-disciplinary health research.
before returning to the literature and using theories deductively to help further explain certain themes). •The Framework Method is most suitable for analysis of interview data, where it is desirable to generate themes by.