A megabyte is a million bytes, a gigabyte is a billion bytes, etc. For large values each one a thousand times bigger say:
The complex task of designing and building process plants consists of several phases — design, engineering, procurement and construction. The design phase itself consists of conceptual design, design study and detailed design.
The project scope is also defined during this phase. Based on the PFD, a large chemical plant or offshore production facility is sub-divided into several small, manageable areas. A Plot Plan is then generated for each area.
Boundary limits for each area are specified using spatial coordinates. The boundaries are known as match lines and play an important role in combining the smaller areas.
In offshore platforms, plot plans are generated for each deck of the platform. The outcome of the conceptual design phase is usually preliminary sizes and locations of major equipment, which results in the plot plan for use during the design study phase.
The design study phase plot plan is reviewed and discussed by the client and by the project disciplines. Vessel supports and ancillaries are located during this phase.
Preliminary routing of major lines also takes place during this phase. This 3-D model will contain all the components of the plant including equipment, piping, fittings, control stations and support structures.
In recent years, the ability to build 3-D electronic models has been greatly enhanced due to advancements in computer hardware and software. Detailed design and engineering: The FEED phase is followed by the detailed design and engineering phase where every piece of equipment and every component of piping systems is finalized and specified for procurement.
The IFD drawings are pictorial representations of the piping system and allied components containing all dimensional information. Piping engineers primarily use the IFD drawings for the following purposes: The piping systems are analyzed for stress and load to ensure that the pipes are not overstressed both under installed and operating conditions and are adequately supported.
In many cases, piping systems need to have enough flexibility to allow for thermal expansion. Pipe stress analysis also includes computing loads and stresses on equipment nozzles and ensuring that they are within the allowable limits specified by applicable standards and codes. Pipe stress analysis is performed with the aid of stress analysis software.
Piping engineers are responsible for interpreting the code using sound engineering judgment to ensure that the proposed design meets the code requirements. The piping engineer is responsible for specifying appropriate materials for the pipes. In accomplishing this task, the piping engineer takes into account operating conditions such as the pressure and temperature and also the chemical nature of the fluid being transported.
Piping material specification is a very time consuming task but it is very important to specify the right material to ensure the safe and efficient operation of the plant.
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The 3-D model is an extremely useful design tool that can be used by all disciplines during the detailed design and engineering phase. The 3-D model is constantly referenced during design review meetings and discussions.
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